حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ، حَدَّثَنَا اللَّيْثُ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبٍ، عَنْ أَبِي الْخَيْرِ، عَنِ الصُّنَابِحِيِّ، عَنْ عُبَادَةَ بْنِ الصَّامِتِ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّهُ قَالَ إِنِّي مِنَ النُّقَبَاءِ الَّذِينَ بَايَعُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم. وَقَالَ بَايَعْنَاهُ عَلَى أَنْ لاَ نُشْرِكَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا، وَلاَ نَسْرِقَ، وَلاَ نَزْنِيَ، وَلاَ نَقْتُلَ النَّفْسَ الَّتِي حَرَّمَ اللَّهُ، وَلاَ نَنْتَهِبَ، وَلاَ نَعْصِيَ بِالْجَنَّةِ إِنْ فَعَلْنَا ذَلِكَ، فَإِنْ غَشِينَا مِنْ ذَلِكَ شَيْئًا كَانَ قَضَاءُ ذَلِكَ إِلَى اللَّهِ.
Narrated ‘Ubada bin As Samit: I was one of the Naqibs who gave the (‘Aqaba) Pledge of Allegiance to Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ). We gave the pledge of allegiance to him that we would not worship anything other than Allah, would not steal, would not commit illegal physical relations, would not kill a person whose killing Allah has made illegal except rightfully, would not rob each other, and we would not be promised Paradise if we did the above sins, then if we committed one of the above sins, Allah will give His Judgment concerning it. (Sahih al-Bukhari 3893)
It was now the 11th year of Prophethood. When the time for Ḥajj approached, as per every year, people from all over the Arabian Peninsula descended upon the Holy city of Makkah. Amongst these pilgrims were a group from Madīnah.
Ibn Isḥāq mentions that when Allāh (SWT) intended for his religion of Islām to become known, and honour his Messenger, Rasūlullāh (SAW) went out in the season of ‘Mawsam’, which meant the season of Ḥajj and presented himself to the Arab tribes. During one of these visits near ‘Aqabah’ he met a group from Madīnah who hailed from the tribe of Khazraj.
Rasūlullāh (SAW) presented himself to the people from Madīnah, in the same way he used to present himself to the other tribes. He asked them who they were. They replied they were a party from the Tribe of Khazraj.
Rasūlullāh (SAW) then invited them to sit for a while so he could talk to them. They accepted his invitation and sat down. During this time Rasūlullāh (SAW) called them towards Allāh and presented Islām to them. He recited verses from the Holy Qur’ān so they could listen to the Revelation.
As soon as they had seen Rasūlullāh (SAW) and heard what he had to say, the people from Madīnah started to converse with one another. Some of them said ‘Oh people, know this, by Allāh, this is the Prophet which the Jews had been telling them about. They had told them that a Prophet was about to come. They thought to themselves that they didn’t want the Jews to go ahead of them in accepting Rasūlullāh (SAW).
They all accepted what Rasūlullāh (SAW) had told them about Islām as the truth and embraced. They said to Rasūlullāh (SAW), that they have many arguments with the Jews, if you give us permission then we will go back and invite them towards Islām as well. If they accept the invitation, then we will both be on agreement and there will be no one more respected than you.
They parted company with Rasūlullāh (SAW) with the light of faith in their hearts.
The 6 people who had come from Madīnah were from the Banū AlKhazraj Tribe, they were:
• Asʿad ibn Zurārah
• ʿAuf ibn Al-Ḥārith
• Rafiʿ ibn Mālik
• Quṭbah ibn ʿĀmir
• ʿUqbah ibn ʿĀmir
• Jābir ibn ʿAbdullāh
Some Scholars have said that instead of Jābir (RA) it was ʿUbādah ibn Ṣāmit (RA).
The 6 Companions now left Makkah and went back home to Madīnah. Wherever they would sit, they would talk about Rasūlullāh (SAW). It got to a stage where there was no household left in Madinah where the name of Rasūlullāh (SAW) had not been mentioned.
The First Pledge of Al-‘Aqabah
The following year, in the 12th year of Prophethood, 12 men from Madīnah came to see Rasūlullāh (SAW) in Makkah during the season of Ḥajj. 5 of them had come the previous year, but this time, 7 new people also came with them. Jābir ibn ʿAbdullāh (RA) did not come that year.
The 7 new Ṣaḥābah were:
• Muʿādh ibn Al-Ḥārith
• Dhakwān ibn ʿAbd Qays
• ʿUbādah ibn Aṣ-Ṣāmit
• Yazīd ibn Thaʿlabah
• ʿAbbās ibn ʿUbādah
• Abu Al-Haytham – Mālik ibn At-Tayhān
• ʿUwaym ibn Sāʿidah
The 12 men met Rasūlullāh (SAW) in Mina, near a place called Aqabah. Today there is a masjid in the place where they met called Masjid Bayʿah or Masjid Aqabah.
They took a pledge of allegiance with Rasūlullāh (SAW) on the following terms:
• They would not associate any partners with Allāh
• They would not steal
• They would not commit adultery
• They would not kill their children
• They would not slander anyone
• They would not disobey him in good deeds
Rasūlullāh (SAW) informed them that if they fulfilled the pledge, Jannah will be for them. But if they disobey, then their matter will be left to Allāh(SWT). If he wishes he can punish them or if he wishes he can forgive them.
This pledge was known as the first pledge of Al-Aqabah.
Back to Madīnah
The 12 new Ṣaḥābah (RA) now went back to Madīnah. Rasūlullāh (SAW) sent Muṣʿab ibn ʿUmayr (RA) with them, so he could teach them the Qur’ān and the commandments of Islām so they could understand the religion. It is also said ʿAbdullāh ibn Umm Maktūm (RA) was also sent with them.
Upon reaching Madīnah, they stayed in the house of Asʿad ibn Zurārah (RA) who was from the original 6 people that met Rasūlullāh (SAW) the first time. Muṣʿab ibn ʿUmayr (RA) would invite people to Islām and teach people how to read Ṣalāh. Muṣʿab ibn ʿUmayr (RA) would also lead them in prayer and be their Imām. Again this showed the amazing wisdom of Rasūlullāh. The tribes of Aws and Khazraj at the time would not prefer a person from the other tribe to lead them in Ṣalāh and Muṣʿab ibn ʿUmayr (RA) was from neither so they would all follow him without issue.
The Establishing of Jumʿah
In that year, Asʿad ibn Zurārah (RA) established Jumʿah.
He had seen that the Jews and Christians both had a special day to congregate. The Jews had their Sabbath on a Saturday whilst the Christians had Sunday as their Holy Day to gather. He thought that the Muslims should also have a specific day where they can also get together and remember Allāh (SWT) and thank Him. A day where they could read Ṣalāh and worship Allāh (SWT). He chose the day of Friday, the day of Jumʿah. In the days of Ignorance, Friday was known as Yawm ʿArūba. The Ṣaḥābah (RA) had used their own reasoning in getting the Muslims together on a Friday and called that day, the day of Jumʿah rather than its previous name.
A few days after this, Musʿab ibn ʿUmayr(RA) received a letter from Rasūlullāh (SAW) stating that everyone should gather after half of the day has passed on a Friday and read 2 Rakʿāh Ṣalāh to achieve closeness to Allāh (SWT).
In the 13th year of Prophethood, Muṣʿab ibn ʿUmayr (RA) came with a large group of Muslims to Makkah to perform Ḥajj. Apart from the Muslims, there were also polytheists from the tribes of Aws & Khazraj who had come to perform the rituals of Ḥajj. There were more than 400 of them and they made up the majority of the group. According to the most famous opinion, there were 75 Muslims, comprising of 73 men and 2 women. All of them pledged allegiance to Rasūlullāh (SAW) in the same place as the first group, in Aqabah.
In the Musnad of Imām Aḥmad, Jābir (RA) narrates that for 10 years, Rasūlullāh (SAW) invited people towards Islām by going to their houses and their markets and their gatherings. He would ask the people, “Who will give me a place to stay, who will help me so I can deliver Allāh’s message and for him will be Jannah?”
Rasūlullāh (SAW) would find no one willing to give him a place and no one to help him until Allāh (SWT) sent us from Yathrib to him. We testified in his truthfulness and gave him refuge. Whichever person from amongst us would go and see Rasūlullāh (SAW), would come back as a Muslim.
When Islām had reached all of the houses in Madīnah, we held a meeting and thought how long will we leave Rasūlullāh (SAW) in this state that he wanders around the mountains of Makkah in a worried and fearful state. Seventy people from amongst us then arrived in Makkah during the season of Ḥajj.
The party from Yathrib arrived in Makkah and informed Rasūlullāh (SAW) secretly of their desire to meet him.
Rasūlullāh (SAW) promised to meet them in the days of Tashrīk at night-time in the blessed valley of Minā in the same place where the previous year the people of Madīnah had taken a pledge with him.
When a 3rd of the night had passed, they went out quietly as the other people who had come from Madīnah, did not know what their intention was. They gathered in a valley near Aqaba and waited for Rasūlullāh (SAW).
ʿAbbās (RA) address to the Anṣār
The Anṣār saw Rasūlullāh (SAW) coming, and his uncle ʿAbbās (RA) was with him. ʿAbbās (RA), up to that time had not accepted Islām but was still the Prophet’s uncle and protector.
When they met, the first person to speak was ʿAbbās (SAW). He told the Anṣār that Rasūlullāh
(SAW) was respected among their people (even though some people were against his religion, he was still respected like no other person). He told them that he was his protector and helper and that Rasūlullāh (SAW) wants to come to you. If you can protect and help him completely and remain steadfast upon this until your final breaths, then it is better, otherwise tell us now clearly.
The Anṣārs reply
After listening to ʿAbbās (SAW), the Anṣār replied. They said that they had heard what he had to say. They then addressed Rasūlullāh (SAW) and said “Oh Messenger of Allāh, what do you require from us? We are ready for it. You can take a pledge from us for whatever you and Allah (SWT) wishes”.
Rasūlullāh (SAW) told them that he was calling them towards Allāh. He presented Islām and recited some verses of the Qur’ān. He then said “I am asking you for Allāh, that you worship him, and you do not join any partners to him. And for my companions I wish that you give them a place. In the same way you look after your children and wives, protect us in the same way. Whether there is happiness or sadness, in times of joy or difficulty, under every circumstance you obey me, and listen to whatever I have to say”.
The Anṣār then asked that if they did this, what would they get in return? Rasūlullāh (SAW) said they will get Paradise – Jannah. The Anṣār then replied that they could accept all the conditions. They asked Rasūlullāh (SAW) to present his blessed hand so they could pledge allegiance to him.
The Bravery of the Anṣār
If we now put this into perspective, Rasūlullāh (SAW) had been protected by his uncle Abū Ṭālib and the people from his family who were all based in Makkah.
He had made many enemies as he had gone against the religion of his forefathers and was making more and more people turn away from polytheism. The Quraysh in Makkah had much to lose both financially and politically.
As each day passed, the enmity of the Quraysh increased. By agreeing to protect Rasūlullāh (SAW) and his Companions, they had agreed that every single person, family, or tribe who was opposed to Rasūlullāh (SAW) would now be opposed to them. They had lived in peace but now they were risking their own lives and the lives of their families in order to protect Rasūlullāh (SAW).
Such a massive sacrifice, and Allāh (SAW) had chosen the people from Madīnah for this task. They were given the name of the ‘Anṣār’ – The Helpers by which they would forever be known.
In Ibn Saʿad, it mentions that when all the people had given their pledge of allegiance to Rasūlullāh (SAW), he said that Mūsā’ (RA) had chosen 12 people from the Banū Isrā’īl, as his ‘Naqīb’, meaning his personal assistants. In the same way, by the indication of Jibrīl (AS), I will choose 12 assistants among you.
He said to the 12, that they were responsible for their people just like how the Disciples were for ʿĪsā’ (AS). The 12 people who were chosen by Rasūlullāh (SAW) were:
• Asʿad ibn Zurārah (RA)
• ʿAbdullāh ibn Rawāhah (RA)
• Saʿad ibn Rabīʿ (RA)
• Rāfīʿ ibn Mālik (RA)
• Abū Jābir ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿAmr (RA)
• Barā’ ibn Maʿmūr (RA)
• Saʿad ibn ʿUbādah (RA)
• Manzar ibn ʿAmr (RA)
• ʿUbādah ibn Ṣāmit (RA)
• Usayd ibn Hudhayr (RA)
• Saʿad ibn Khayshama (RA)
• Rifāʿah ibn ʿAbdul Manzar (RA)
The Quraysh find out about the Pledge
The pledge of allegiance with Rasūlullāh (SAW) had been done in secrecy. The rest of the pilgrims from Madīnah were unaware about it.
The following morning, the Quraysh found out what had happened so went to the people of Madīnah to ask them. As they didn’t know, they replied that this news was completely false, if this incident had happened, then they would have had knowledge of it. The people from Madīnah then left to go back home.
When the Quraysh found out that the news in fact was true, they went after them, but the people from Madīnah had already gone too far for them to be caught. Only Saʿad ibn ʿUbādah (RA) who had remained behind was caught. He was then beaten but Jubayr ibn Matʿam managed to free him.
(Sirah of Muhammad (SAW) Part 8-The Final Years of the Makkan Period by Maulana Ebrahim Noor)