Weekly Blog # 5
Sept 13, 221 – Sept 19, 2021
Safar 6, 1443 – Safar 12, 1443

Conquest of Khaibar - Safar

What have Allah and His Messenger said about

Conquest of Khaibar - Safar

وَعَدَكُمُ ٱللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَـٰذِهِۦ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِىَ ٱلنَّاسِ عَنكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ ءَايَةً لِّلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَٰطًا مُّسْتَقِيمًا وَأُخْرَىٰ لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا۟ عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ ٱللَّهُ بِهَا ۚ وَكَانَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ قَدِيرًا
Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this, and He has restrained the hands of men from you: that it may be a sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to the Straight Path. And other (victories and much booty He promises you) which are not yet within your power; indeed Allah compasses them. And Allah is Ever Able to do all things. Surah Al-Fath (48) – Verses 20 – 21
حَدَّثَنَا قُتَيْبَةُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، حَدَّثَنَا يَعْقُوبُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي سَهْلُ بْنُ سَعْدٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ يَوْمَ خَيْبَرَ ‏”‏ لأُعْطِيَنَّ هَذِهِ الرَّايَةَ غَدًا رَجُلاً، يَفْتَحُ اللَّهُ عَلَى يَدَيْهِ، يُحِبُّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ، وَيُحِبُّهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ ‏”‏‏.‏ قَالَ فَبَاتَ النَّاسُ يَدُوكُونَ لَيْلَتَهُمْ أَيُّهُمْ يُعْطَاهَا فَلَمَّا أَصْبَحَ النَّاسُ غَدَوْا عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم، كُلُّهُمْ يَرْجُو أَنْ يُعْطَاهَا فَقَالَ ‏”‏ أَيْنَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقِيلَ هُوَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ يَشْتَكِي عَيْنَيْهِ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ فَأَرْسِلُوا إِلَيْهِ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَأُتِيَ بِهِ فَبَصَقَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي عَيْنَيْهِ، وَدَعَا لَهُ، فَبَرَأَ حَتَّى كَأَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ بِهِ وَجَعٌ، فَأَعْطَاهُ الرَّايَةَ، فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أُقَاتِلُهُمْ حَتَّى يَكُونُوا مِثْلَنَا، فَقَالَ ‏”‏ انْفُذْ عَلَى رِسْلِكَ حَتَّى تَنْزِلَ بِسَاحَتِهِمْ، ثُمَّ ادْعُهُمْ إِلَى الإِسْلاَمِ، وَأَخْبِرْهُمْ بِمَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِمْ مِنْ حَقِّ اللَّهِ فِيهِ، فَوَاللَّهِ لأَنْ يَهْدِيَ اللَّهُ بِكَ رَجُلاً وَاحِدًا خَيْرٌ لَكَ مِنْ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَكَ حُمْرُ النَّعَمِ ‏”‏‏
Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d: On the day of Khaibar, Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, “Tomorrow I will give this flag to a man through whose hands Allah will give us victory. He loves Allah and His Apostle, and he is loved by Allah and His Apostle.” The people remained that night, wondering as to who would be given it. In the morning the people went to Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) and everyone of them was hopeful to receive it (i.e. the flag). The Prophet said, “Where is `Ali bin Abi Talib?” It was said, “He is suffering from eye trouble O Allah’s Apostle.” He said, “Send for him.” `Ali was brought and Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) spat in his eye and invoked good upon him. So `Ali was cured as if he never had any trouble. Then the Prophet (PBUH) gave him the flag. `Ali said “O Allah’s Messenger (PBUH)! I will fight with them till they become like us.” Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) said, “Proceed and do not hurry. When you enter their territory, call them to embrace Islam and inform them of Allah’s Rights which they should observe, for by Allah, even if a single man is led on the right path (of Islam) by Allah through you, then that will be better for you than the nice red camels. Sahih al-Bukhari Volume 3 – Hadith #4210
Background of Battle:

The leaders of Jews had been deeply hurt by their expulsion from their homes. These leaders, who settled in Kahibar were Salam ibn Abu al Haqiq, Kinanah ibn Abu al Haqiq, and Huyayy ibn Akhtab. The leadership of these three men was enough to drag the Jews of Khaibar into conflict aimed at retaliation against the Muslims. They were driven by an inner hatred and strong desire to return to their homes in Madinah.

Their first move against the Muslims came in the Battle of the Trench, when the Jews of Khaibar, led by the leaders of Banu Al-Nadir, played a significant role in the incitement of Quraish and the desert Arabs against the Muslims, and spent their own money for that purpose. Then they succeeded in persuading Banu Qurayzah to betray the Muslims and cooperate with their enemies. After Allah had aided the Muslims in defending Madinah and defeating the tribes, the Messenger (S.A.W.) felt that it was important to deal with the situation in Khaibar, which had become a source of great danger for the Muslims.

Ibn Ishaq reports with an ‘Isnad’ (the chain of authorities attesting to the historical authenticity of a particular Hadith) that the Messenger (S.A.W.) sent a letter to them, calling them to Islam but the Jews did not accept his invitation, nor did they apologize for inciting the enemies of the Muslims. The Messenger (S.A.W.), therefore, decided to deal with their leaders who had played a part in the incitement against him, including Salam ibn Abd al Haqiq. The Messenger sent Abdullah ibn Atik (R.A.) but they killed him. (1)

Prophet (S.A.W.) reached Khaibar:

Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) reached Khaibar before dawn and prayed Fajr in its vicinity. Then he attacked it before the sun rose. The Jewish peasants who came out to work with their cattle, hoes and baskets were surprised to see the Muslims there and exclaimed: “Mohammad and his army!” The Messenger answered: “Allahu Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed. When we descend into the open space of people, evil will be the morning for those who were warned (and heeded not)!

Anas (R.A.) narrated: ‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) set out for Khaibar and reached it at night. He used not to attack if he reached the people at night, till the day broke. So, when the day dawned, the Jews came out with their bags and spades. When they saw the Prophet; they said, “Mohammad and his army!” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, Allahu-Akbar! (Allah is Greater) and Khaibar is ruined, for whenever we approach a nation (i.e. enemy to fight) then it will be a miserable morning for those who have been warned.” (Sahih Bukhari: 2945)

Anas Ibn Malik (R.A.) also said: ‘We reached Khaibar early in the morning and the inhabitants of Khaibar came out carrying their spades, and when they saw the Prophet (S.A.W.) they said, “Mohammad! By Allah! Mohammad and his army!” The Prophet (S.A.W.) said, “Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight) then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned.” We then got the meat of donkeys (and intended to eat it), but an announcement was made by the announcer of the Prophet, “Allah and His Apostle forbid you to eat the meat of donkeys as it is an impure thing.” (Sahih Bukhari: 4198)

Narrated by Anas Ibn Malik (R.A.): ‘The Prophet (S.A.W.) offered the Fajr Prayer near Khaibar when it was still dark and then said, “Allahu-Akbar! Khaibar is destroyed, for whenever we approach a (hostile) nation (to fight), then evil will be the morning for those who have been warned.” Then the inhabitants of Khaibar came out running on the roads. The Prophet (S.A.W.) had their warriors killed, their offspring and woman taken as captives. Safiya was amongst the captives, she first came in the share of Dahya Alkali but later on she belonged to the Prophet (S.A.W.). The Prophet (S.A.W.) made her manumission as her ‘Mahr’ (dowry).’ (Sahih Bukhari: 4200) (1)
The Conquest of Khaibar’s Forts:

According to Ibn Ishaq, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) besieged the people of Khaibar in their two forts Al-Watih and Al-Sulaim until they could hold out no longer they asked him to let them go, and spare their lives, and he did so. Now, the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) had taken possession of all their property – Al-Shaqq, Al-Nata, and Ak¬ Katibah and all their forts – except what appertained to these two.

When the people of Fadak (garden oasis in Khaibar,) heard of what had happened, they sent to the Messenger (S.A.W.) asking him to let them go and spare their lives and they would leave him their property, and he did so. The one who acted as intermediary was Muhqyisa Ibn Masud, brother of Banu Harithah (one of Jews tribe). When the people of Khaibar surrounded on these conditions, they asked the Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) to employ them on the property with half share in the produce, saying, “We know more about it than you and we are better farmers.”

The Messenger of Allah (S.A.W.) agreed to this arrangement on the condition that: “If we wish to expel you we will expel you.” (Ref. Sahih Bukhari: 2338)

The rest of Khaibar fell to the Muslims. The people of Fadak, to the north of Khaybar, hastened to ask for peace, and to be allowed to leave in safety, and leave their wealth in return for that. The Prophet (S.A.W.) agreed to their request.

After conquering Khaibar, the Jews were not expelled from Khaibar at the time of the Prophet (S.A.W.). There is an authentic report that the Prophet (S.A.W.) allowed the Jews to stay in Khaibar on the condition that they work in agriculture and spend their own money on it, and that the Muslims would receive one half of their crops. This was in spite of the fact that the Muslims had the right to expel them if they wanted to. (1)

Martyrs and Deaths during the Battle:

The number of Jewish men killed in the battle of Khaibar was 93. Twenty Muslims were martyred, according to Ibn Ishaq.

(1) (1) (The above sections were adapted from islamicfinder.org)

The Spoils

The phrase “many spoils” mentioned here refers to the sizeable spoils that fell into the hands of Muslims in the conquests which followed the victory at Khaibar, in the rest of Arabia and the neighboring countries. This verse embodies a prophecy that Muslims will achieve other great victories after the victory of Khaibar, and in consequence many spoils until the end of the world. However, before those numerous conquests, the conquest of Khaibar was given first, the spoils of which were reserved by Allah exclusively for the participants of Hudaibiyah. But the spoils to be achieved in all the next conquest would be common to all. This shows that the injunction of reserving the right of participating in Khaibar is not laid down explicitly in these verses. That injunction was laid down, as detailed earlier, in a separate category of revelation, that is, in the unrecited revelation. The Holy Prophet (SAW) acted upon the injunction and imparted its knowledge to the noble Companions.

Fear of the Muslims

(…and He has restrained the hands of men from you. … 48:20). This refers to the unbelievers of Khaibar. In this battle, Allah did not allow them the opportunity to show much strength or force. Imam Baghawi says that the tribe of Ghatafan was the ally of the Jews of Khaibar. When it heard of the Holy Prophet’s march against the Jews of Khaibar, it equipped itself with heavy arms to defend the Jews. But Allah infused terror into their minds, and they were worried that if they went forward, it was possible that a Muslim army might attack their homes in their absence. As a result, they got cold feet and did not have the courage to proceed (Mazharf).

Complete Guidence

(…And that He may guide you to the Straight Path…. 48:20) They were all already guided on the straight path. Here it refers to the degree of guidance which they had not yet attained, that is, full reliance on Allah and increase in the power of faith.

(Maariful Quran – Vol 7, pg 94-95)

Spiritual Reminders

Tests of Iman
The prophets (AS) had the highest level of Iman, so they were put through the harshest of tests. The most difficult tests in this world came to the prophets (AS). Sometimes they would be physical, in the form of torture or punishment; falling sick, being poisoned, and sometimes it would be from emotions or being hurt from people, sometimes being hurt from those closest to them, like their wives, children, blood relatives or tribes. After the prophets (AS), the highest status belongs to the sahaba of the prophet (SAW). They were also put through extremely difficult tests. In one battle, the battle of Hunayn which took place after the conquest of Makkah, the battle itself was a test because the Muslims went in overconfident due to their numbers, and for the first time, it looked like they were going to outnumber their enemy. They said, “There is no way we can lose because of smaller numbers.” Very early in the battle, Allah (SWT) showed them that their numbers were not going to give them victory. Then, the prophet (SAW) called the ansar, the people of Madinah, close to him, and the people who took the Bay’ah, the oath of allegiance under the tree, rushed to the prophet (SAW), and he moved forward with them, changing the flow of the battle. Ultimately, they won. This battle perhaps brought them the greatest amount of war spoils (meaning wealth that is conquered and taken after a battle) more than any other battle. The reason for this was that the chief of the people of Hunayn told his people to bring everything they had, including thousands of camels, goats and sheep into the battlefield to remind them what would happen if they were to lose the battle. They also brought all of their family members and their wealth of gold and silver. This was a huge tribe.

So, when the Muslims won, all of this came into their hands, so there was an enormous amount of wealth to be distributed. Now, as I mentioned, this happened right after the conquest of Makkah, and at the conquest of Makkah, just before, during and shortly after, everyone of Quraysh had accepted Islam. Everyone who had been fighting against the prophet (SAW) all of these years had finally accepted Islam. People like Abu Sufiyan, for example, who had waged war against the Muslims multiple times, became Muslim; his son, Mu’awiya became Muslim, Ikrima, the son of Abu Jahl became Muslim, and Hind, the wife of Abu Sufiyan became Muslim. These were all very staunch enemies. There was a huge number of recent converts in the religion, and they were so new that they did not know much about Islam and were still very shaky. They had also lost many battles against the Muslims, in that they had lost their wealth, their children (in the sense that they had lost their fathers) and so the prophet (SAW) used almost all of this wealth to give to the new Muslims.

When this happened, some of the ansar were surprised and hurt. They said, “When help is required in the battlefield, our name is called; ‘Come, O ansar.’ And when it is time to distribute the wealth, it is given to those who have not sacrificed for Islam yet.” These types of words reached the prophet (SAW), so he collected all of the ansar in a small field, and when he arrived, he asked them of the statements that he was hearing. Some of the senior sahaba said, “O prophet of Allah, this came from youngsters among us. The majority of us would never dare say such a thing.” He said, “Weren’t you people all astray, and I came to you and guided you to Allah (SWT) through me?” They said, “Yes.” He said, “Weren’t you people impoverished and in complete poverty? Did Allah (SWT) not make you wealthy and prosperous through me?” Once again, they replied, “Yes.” The prophet (SAW) said, “You do not have to say yes. You could say ‘O prophet (SAW); we supported you when there was no one with you, we gave you our wealth when you had no wealth, and we gave you our resources when you had no resources.’ If you wanted to have said this, you could have.” They said, “We would never say such a thing.” The prophet (SAW) said, “It would be true. But let me explain something to you; you people have such a place in the heart that no one else could occupy. If all of mankind were to walk down one path and the ansar were to walk down another, I would choose the path that the ansar are walking on, and if it were not for the fact that Allah (SWT) made Hijrah happen, I would be one of the ansar instead of someone from Makkah. These people have come recently into Islam and I have given them all of this wealth to make up for the many losses that they have been enduring. It is material wealth; things that Allah (SWT) has no value for, nor do I have any value for. How would you like if people went home with camels and goats, and you went home with Allah (SWT) and his prophet on your side? What would you rather have?” They all said, “We would rather have Allah and his prophet.” The prophet (SAW) said, “Indeed, when this war ends, these people will go home with their goats and sheep; but I will go home with you all back to Madinah.”

In that way, they let everything go and apologized, but look at the lesson here; that even after doing everything, they did not get any monetary gain. This is a testament to their ikhlas and sincerity, that they only did things to please Allah (SWT). Tomorrow, we may also be in a position where we are doing many good things and we see the opportunity to benefit somehow and to exploit that either for financial gain or to make a name for ourselves, but that is our test that Allah (SWT) puts us through. If we stay pure in our intention that we are doing whatever we are doing for the sake of Allah (SWT), then we will go home with Allah (SWT) and his prophet (SAW) on his side; otherwise, we will be going home, maybe with some monetary benefits, but Allah (AWJ) and his prophet (SAW) will never be pleased with us. May Allah (SWT) enable us to take lessons from these people who are our guides and models, and also give us the ability to be sincere in all of our endeavors from the beginning to the end.

YOUR WEEKLY DOSE OF

Sirah

The Conquest
According to some versions, the Holy Prophet (SAW) stayed in Madinah after returning from Hudaibiyah only for ten days, and according to other versions, he stayed for twenty days. Then he marched against Khaibar. According to Ibn Ishaq’s version, he returned to Madinah in the month of Dhulhijjah and set out for Khaibar in the month of Muharram in the 7th year of Hijrah.

Khaibar was conquered in the month of Safar in the 7th year of Hijrah. This is reported by Waqidi’s Maghazi. According to Hafiz Ibn- Hajar, this is the preferred opinion. (Tafslr Mazhari)

(Maariful Quran – Vol 7, pg 94)

Sunnah Acts

The Generosity of the Prophet (SAW)
The Prophet (SAW) was extremely generous and always preferred others over himself. The Prophet (SAW) would not deny anyone who requested him. Once a lady brought a woven cloak to the Prophet (SAW) when he was in need of it. The Prophet (SAW) accepted her gift and came out wearing it while a man praised the cloak and said, “Will you give it to me? How nice it is!”. The Prophet (SAW) fulfilled the man’s request while other people criticized the man because he knew the Prophet was in need of it and does not turn anyone down.

Adhkar/Dua

Dua for Protection Against Enemies
اللَّهُمَّ إنَّا نَجْعَلُكَ فِي نُحُورِهِمْ وَ نَعُوذُبِكَ مِنْ شُرُورِهِمْ
Allahumma inna naj’alukua fi nuhoorihim wa na’oodhu bika min shuroorihim

” Oh Allah, we ask You to restrain them by their necks and we seek refuge in You from their evil”

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