Al Ihsan Blogs

64- The Migration to Madinah I

Description & Lifestyle

The Blessed Hands of the Prophet (SAW)
 
Umm Maʿbad was a respectable woman and a generous host. During the journey to Madinah, Rasūlullāh (SAW) and his Companions tried to purchase some dates and meat from her but were unable to do so.
 
Rasūlullāh’s (SAW) eyes then fell upon a goat which was tied up to one side of the tent. He asked about this goat, and Umm Maʿbad said that this goat is lean and skinny, so it does not go out with the other goats to graze. Rasūlullāh (SAW) asked if there was any milk in the goat? She replied, where is the milk going to come from? Rasūlullāh (SAW) then asked her if he could have permission to milk the goat. She said, if there is milk in the goat then definitely milk it.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) said ‘Bismillāh’ and placed his hands on its udders. The udders filled with milk, and he started to milk the goat.
 
A large bowl from which 8 to 10 people could drink, became full. First Rasūlullāh (SAW) gave Umm Maʿbad the milk, she drank until she was full. He then gave some to his Companions and finally he drank himself. Rasūlullāh (SAW) then milked the goat again until the bowl became full and he gave it to Umm Maʿbad.
 
(Sīrah of Muḥammad – Part 9 The Hijrah (I) by Maulana Ebrahim Noor)

Sirah & Our Lives Today

لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَنَا
 
“Do not grieve. Allah is surely with us.” [9:40]
 
Hijrah was the most significant event in the Islamic history with various valuable lessons. One of the lessons we can derive is to always remain firm and convicted in Allah (SWT) just as it was shown by the Prophet (SAW) through his journey to Madinah.
 
“By citing the event of the Hijrah of the Holy Prophet (SAW), it has been emphasised that the Holy Prophet (SAW) has no need to depend on any human help and support. Allah (SWT) can help him directly through unseen factors – as it happened at the time of Hijrah when his own people had forced him to leave his homeland. On this journey, the only companion he had was Abu Bakr (RA). Enemy foot soldiers and riders were looking for them and the place to hide was no fortified fortress. It was just a cave and the enemy search party had reached close to its edges. Inside it, the companion of the cave, Abu Bakr (RA) was worried, not for his own safety, but about the Holy Prophet (SAW). He was in fear lest the enemy outside was to harm the Holy Prophet (SAW). But the Holy Prophet (SAW) himself was sitting calm like a mountain at peace. Not simply that he was himself cool and collected, he was telling his companion, Abu Bakr (RA): Do not grieve, Surely Allah (SWT) is with us.”
 
(Tafsir Maariful Quran by Mufti Muhammad Shafi Usmani)
 
This verse should be every Muslim’s attitude towards life. The Prophet (SAW) biggest test of his faith was leaving his homeland and fleeing the enemies who were after him. As such, many believers will go through many tests of their faith and Imaan. We should remember that Allah’s (SWT) words are the most superior and to be assured that Allah (SWT) will grant his believers tranquility at their lowest points in life.

Weekly Sunnah

The Turban
 
Hadhrat Jaabir RA reports that on the day of victory, when the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) entered Makkah, there was a black turban on his blessed head.
 
It is an immaculate Sunnah to tie the turban on the head. The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) has tied the turban himself, praised it and has also recommended to tie it.
 
There is a narration in Fath al-Baari which says, “Tie a turban, it helps create clemency”. The narration of Ayni says, “Tie a turban. It’s a salient feature of Islam and it differentiates between a Muslim and a non-believer.”
 
A saffron coloured turban should not be worn. Any other coloured turban is permissible. Although, the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) has worn a black turban and has praise wearing a white one.
 
The Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) has used a long as well as short turban. The long turban was of 12 cubits and the short one was about 6-7 cubits in length.
 
As for the tail (Shamlah) of the turban, the blessed habit of the Prophet (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) had differed. He would usually leave a tail to the extent that some ‘Ulama have written that it is not proven to tie a turban without a tail.
 
However, it is proven through research that he (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) used to tie (a turban) without a tail as well.
 
Again, there had been varied habits as for leaving a tail. At times in the front on the right side, at the back in between the shoulders, at times he (Sallallaahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam) left both the ends of the turban as tails.
 
Allaamah Munaawi AR writes that although, all the alternatives are proven, a better and more correct alternative is to leave the tail at the back in between the shoulders.
 
The tail of the turban left at the back should not exceed halfway to the loin and to tie the turban with vanity and haughtiness, to look down upon others, is impermissible.
 
(Zubda Tu Shamael by Moulana Mohammad Ilyas Ghumman)

Qur'anic Verse

وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ ۚ وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ ٱللَّهُ ۖ وَٱللَّهُ خَيْرُ ٱلْمَـٰكِرِينَ
 
And ˹remember, O Prophet,˺ when the disbelievers conspired to capture, kill, or exile you. They planned, but Allah also planned. And Allah is the best of planners. (8:30)
 
إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ ٱللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ثَانِىَ ٱثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِى ٱلْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَـٰحِبِهِۦ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ ٱللَّهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنزَلَ ٱللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُۥ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُۥ بِجُنُودٍۢ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ ٱلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا۟ ٱلسُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ ٱللَّهِ هِىَ ٱلْعُلْيَا ۗ وَٱللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
 
˹It does not matter˺ if you ˹believers˺ do not support him, for Allah did in fact support him when the disbelievers drove him out ˹of Mecca˺ and he was only one of two. While they both were in the cave, he reassured his companion, “Do not worry; Allah is certainly with us.” So, Allah sent down His serenity upon the Prophet, supported him with forces you ˹believers˺ did not see, and made the word of the disbelievers lowest, while the Word of Allah is supreme. And Allah is Almighty, All-Wise. (9:40)

The Migration Begins

In the same way Prophethood had been preceded by true dreams, the Hijrah – migration was also preceded by true dreams. In the dreams, Rasūlullāh (SAW) had been shown the place where he would migrate to, but he hadn’t been told of its name.
 
After the pledges of ʿAqabah had taken place, Rasūlullāh (SAW) gave his Companions the order to migrate to Yathrib. The place of migration had now been decided, and it was going to be Yathrib or Madīnah as it would be later known.
 
When the Companions received the command, they started to migrate in a manner where the Quraysh would not know.
 
So, the most famous migration in the history of mankind had begun. Each person had to leave behind their home, their families, and their wealth. Leave it all behind and go to a town where they knew no one and had no possessions. They were willing to sacrifice everything for Allāh (SWT).
 
Each person had a different story when it came to their Hijrah, each of them faced different difficulties. The Quraysh were not going to make it easy for anyone to leave and they would try their utmost to stop them.
 
The Ṣaḥābah didn’t just attain their lofty status automatically, but it was due to their actions, their sacrifices, their obedience to Allāh (SWT) and Rasūlullāh (SAW). They were the greatest Muslims to have ever lived.
 
More Companions were now migrating. ʿUtbah and Abū Jahl, two of the Qurayshi leaders were standing looking at how the houses in Makkah were now becoming empty and deserted. One by one, the people were leaving Makkah.
 
Gradually, the Companions of Rasūlullāh (SAW) migrated to Madīnah. The only Muslims left in Makkah were Rasūlullāh (SAW), Abū Bakr (RA) and ʿAlī (RA). There were also a few more helpless Companions who were either held captive or prevented from leaving.
 
Dār an-Nadwah
 
The Quraysh had seen that the Companions had mostly left and very soon Rasūlullāh (SAW) would also leave for Madīnah. They gathered in Dār an-Nadwah, to decide what they should do next. Dār an-Nadwah was the house of their forefather Quṣay ibn Kilāb and all the major decisions for the Quraysh used to take place in this house.
 
The Arrival of Iblīs
 
There was also another person present at the council. Iblīs arrived in the form of an old man and stood at the door. When the Quraysh saw him, they asked him, who he was. He said he was a Shaykh from Najd. He told them that he wanted to hear their conversation, and if possible, he would help them with his opinion. The Quraysh gave him permission to enter, and the meeting started.
 
The Meeting
 
The meeting began and the people started to give their opinions, on what they should do with Rasūlullāh (SAW). One person suggested that they should imprison him. Iblīs in the form of the Najdi old man replied that this is not a good idea, if his Companions find out, then they will free him.
 
Another person gave the opinion that they should exile him. Again, Iblīs replied that this opinion is completely wrong. If some people from another city are taken in by his words and accept him, then they could attack us.
 
Abū Jahl’s opinion was that they should neither imprison him nor exile him. One person should be chosen from each tribe, and they should kill Rasūlullāh (SAW) altogether. In this manner, his murder will be shared by all the tribes and the Banū ʿAbd Manāf, the family of Rasūlullāh (SAW) would not be able to fight with all of the tribes. They will have no choice but to accept blood money. All the people in the meeting including Iblīs favoured this opinion.
 
It was decided that this action would have to be done in that month. On one side the meeting came to an end with the decision to assassinate Rasūlullāh (SAW) and on the other side Jibrīl (AS) arrived with revelation to Rasūlullāh (SAW).
 
The Warning
 
Jibrīl (AS) came to Rasūlullāh (SAW) and told him not to spend the night on his bed that he normally sleeps in. Rasūlullāh (SAW) then told ʿAlī (RA) to sleep on his bed and wrap Rasūlullāh’s (SAW) green Ḥaḍramī cloak over him. Rasūlullāh (SAW) would then sleep in ʿAlī (RA) cloak.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) had become aware of the whole plot and was finally given permission by Allāh (SWT) to migrate.
 
ʿAlī (RA) narrates that Rasūlullāh (SAW) asked Jibrīl (AS), who will migrate with me? Jibrīl (AS) replied, ‘Abū Bakr (AS).
 
ʿĀ’ishah (RA) narrates that rarely did the Prophet (SAW) fail to visit the house of Abū Bakr (RA), either in the morning or evening. When he was given permission to leave for Madīnah, he came to our house all of a sudden at noon time and informed Abū Bakr (RA).
 
Abū Bakr (RA) said certainly the Prophet (SAW) has come for some urgent matter. When Rasūlullāh (SAW) entered, he said “Whoever is with you should leave from here”. Abū Bakr (RA) said “O Rasūlullāh (SAW) it is only my two daughters here” meaning ʿĀ’ishah (RA) and Asmā’ (RA).
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) said “I feel that I have been granted permission for migration (meaning he has been informed)”. Abū Bakr (RA) said “I will accompany you O Rasūlullāh (SAW)”. Rasūlullāh (SAW) said, “You will accompany me”. Abū Bakr (RA) said “O Rasūlullāh (SAW), I have 2 she camels which I have prepared for migration, so take one of them”. Rasūlullāh (SAW) said “I will take it for a price”. Abū Bakr (RA) had already purchased 2 camels ready for the journey.
 
Wāqidī mentions that the name of the camel which Rasūlullāh (SAW) took was Qaṣwā’. Ibn Isḥāq mentions it was called Judʿā’ and this is the most correct opinion.

The Night Comes

The night arrived and darkness settled in. The assassins came to the house of Rasūlullāh (SAW) and surrounded it. Rasūlullāh (SAW) told Ali (RA) not to worry as no one would be able to cause him any harm. Rasūlullāh (SAW) also instructed him (RA) to return all the goods which people had left in his trust.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) came out of his house with a handful of dust and recited the first few verses of Sūrah Yāsīn.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) threw the dust on the heads of the assassins and Allah (SWT) placed a barrier over their eyes. Rasūlullāh (SAW) went past them, yet none of them were able to see him. He (SAW) then went to the house of Abū Bakr (RA) and they both began one of the most memorable journeys ever undertaken – The Hijrah.
 
The Cave
 
The two Companions made their way to the mountain of Thawr. This mountain is about 10km southeast of Makkah.
 
The journey was long and hard as it was also night. When they reached the mountain, they started to climb until they reached a cave. The cave is about 750m above sea level so over halfway up the mountain. The cave has 2 entrances and a height of only 1.25 metres.
 
Meanwhile, back in Makkah, the assassins were still outside the house thinking he was inside. A man passed by them and asked, “Why are you standing and what are you waiting for?” The assassins told him that they were waiting for Rasūlullāh (SAW) and as soon as he comes out, they will kill him.
 
The man said to them, “May Allāh (SWT) make you unsuccessful. Muḥammad (SAW) has thrown dust on your heads and passed by.”
 
The assassins had surrounded the house of Rasulullah (SAW) all night long but had not entered the house. When the morning came, the assassins realised they had been fooled. They had thought that Rasūlullāh (SAW) was asleep in his bed but realized it was none other than ʿAlī (RA) and Rasūlullāh (SAW) was nowhere to be seen! They said, “By Allāh, what that person said was true”. They asked ʿAlī (RA) where Rasūlullāh (SAW) was, and he told them he didn’t know.
 
The Time in the Cave
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) and Abū Bakr (RA) had reached the cave at night. Abū Bakr (RA) went inside the cave first, to ensure there were no dangerous things inside like snakes. Once he checked the cave, Rasūlullāh (SAW) then entered.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) and Abū Bakr (RA) were hidden in the cave whilst the people in Makkah were looking for them. During the day, ʿAbdullāh (RA) who was the son of Abū Bakr (RA) would stay in Makkah and see what the Quraysh were up to. He would then go to the cave in the evening and update Rasūlullāh (SAW) and his father Abū Bakr (RA).
 
ʿĀmir ibn Fuhayrah (RA) was a slave who Abū Bakr (RA) had freed. He used to shepherd the goats for the people of Makkah. When night-time would come, he would take his goats near the cave and give Rasūlullāh (SAW) and Abū Bakr (RA) milk from the goats.
 
In order to get to Madīnah, they needed a skilled guide to take them by routes which were seldom used. ʿAbdullāh ibn Arīqaṭ had been hired for this purpose. Even though he had not embraced, both Rasūlullāh (SAW) and Abū Bakr (RA) placed their trust in him.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) had completely wrong footed the Quraysh. They spent the night watching his house and he had slipped away unnoticed. Secondly, they had thought he had travelled north towards Madīnah and sent out search parties for him. Instead, Rasūlullāh (SAW) had turned south and gone in the opposite direction.
 
He had also chosen the place of his hiding, and the time they would spend there before leaving for Madīnah. And finally, the path to Makkah had also been chosen and it was a way not known by many people.
 
The Web & the Nest
 
The companions of the cave had arrived at night-time. Ḥāfiẓ Dhahabī mentions, first Abū Bakr (RA) entered the cave and then Rasulullah (SAW). With Allah’s (SWT) permission, a spider spun a web over the mouth of the cave.
 
When the Quraysh found out that Rasūlullāh (SAW) was not in his house, they sent people looking everywhere for him. They even reached the cave but upon seeing the web they did not enter it. How could someone be inside a cave when a web is covering the opening?
 
Abū Muṣʿab (RA) narrates from various Companions including Anas ibn Mālik (RA) and Zayd ibn Arqam (RA) that when Rasūlullah sought refuge in the cave, Allah (SWT) gave the command to a tree to grow in front of the cave. A pair of wild pigeons then came and laid some eggs in a nest. When the polytheists came looking for Rasūlullāh (SAW) and reached the cave, they saw the birds’ nest and turned back.
 
The Journey Begins
 
For three nights, Rasūlullāh (SAW) and Abū Bakr (RA) stayed in the cave. The Quraysh had searched for Rasūlullāh (SAW) for three days but were unsuccessful, even though a reward of 100 camels was offered to whoever found him. The search had now lost its momentum and on the morning of third day, ʿAbdullāh ibn Arī’qaṭ arrived with the camels as was agreed.
 
The small group now started to make their way to Madīnah using a path which first took them towards the sea in a westerly direction.
 
Rasūlullāh (SAW) sat on one camel and on the other sat Abū Bakr (RA) and his freed slave ʿĀmir ibn Fuhayrah. ʿAbdullāh ibn Arīqaṭ sat on his camel and led the way.
 
(Sīrah of Muḥammad – Part 9 The Hijrah (I) by Maulana Ebrahim Noor)

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