#45 – Brotherhood
Jun 20 – Jun 26, 2022
Dhul Qa’dah 21 – 27, 1443

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Brotherhood

What have Allah and His Messenger said about

Brotherhood

إِنَّمَا ٱلْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا۟ بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَٱتَّقُوا۟ ٱللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ
The believers are but one brotherhood, so make peace between your brothers. And be mindful of Allah so you may be shown mercy.

[Surah Al-Hujurat, Ayah 10]
حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو نُعَيْمٍ، حَدَّثَنَا زَكَرِيَّاءُ، عَنْ عَامِرٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُهُ يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ النُّعْمَانَ بْنَ بَشِيرٍ، يَقُولُ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ تَرَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فِي تَرَاحُمِهِمْ وَتَوَادِّهِمْ وَتَعَاطُفِهِمْ كَمَثَلِ الْجَسَدِ إِذَا اشْتَكَى عُضْوًا تَدَاعَى لَهُ سَائِرُ جَسَدِهِ بِالسَّهَرِ وَالْحُمَّى ‏”
Narrated An-Nu`man bin Bashir:
Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness (insomnia) and fever with it.”

[Sahih al-Bukhari 6011]
حَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ أَبِي عُمَرَ، حَدَّثَنَا سُفْيَانُ، عَنْ مُسْلِمِ بْنِ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، عَنْ أَبِي صَالِحٍ، سَمِعَ أَبَا هُرَيْرَةَ، رَفَعَهُ مَرَّةً قَالَ ‏ “‏ تُعْرَضُ الأَعْمَالُ فِي كُلِّ يَوْمِ خَمِيسٍ وَاثْنَيْنِ فَيَغْفِرُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ فِي ذَلِكَ الْيَوْمِ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ لاَ يُشْرِكُ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِلاَّ امْرَأً كَانَتْ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَ أَخِيهِ شَحْنَاءُ فَيُقَالُ ارْكُوا هَذَيْنِ حَتَّى يَصْطَلِحَا ارْكُوا هَذَيْنِ حَتَّى يَصْطَلِحَا ‏”‏ ‏.‏
Abu Huraira reported it as a marfu’ hadith (and the words are):
The deeds are presented on every Thursday and Monday and Allah, the Exalted and Glorious. grants pardon to every person who does not associate anything with Allah except the person in whose (heart) there is rancour against his brother. It would be said: Put both of them off until they are reconciled.

[Sahih Muslim 2565c]
عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي مُزَرِّدٍ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ رُومَانَ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏ “‏ الرَّحِمُ مُعَلَّقَةٌ بِالْعَرْشِ تَقُولُ مَنْ وَصَلَنِي وَصَلَهُ اللَّهُ وَمَنْ قَطَعَنِي قَطَعَهُ اللَّهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏
‘A’isha reported Allah’s Messenger (ﷺ) as saying:
The tie of kinship is suspended to the Throne and says: He who unites me Allah would unite him and he who severed me Allah would sever him.

[Sahih Muslim 2555]

Commentary of Surah Al-Hujurat, Ayah 10

In the foregoing verses the rights of the Prophet were set out. They also laid down the mannerism in which he should be treated. The verses prohibited any act that would annoy or hurt him. Now this set of verses [ 9-10] establishes the manners, mores, injunctions, and mutual rights and obligations to be observed in individual and social life. The common value of all these rules is to avoid causing any inconvenience to the members of the society.

The commentators have narrated several incidents as a background of the revelation of these verses. Among them is the clash that took place between two Muslim groups. It is not inconceivable that the totality of these incidents might have been the occasion of revelation. It is also possible that one of these incidents has been the cause of revelation and the other incidents, being similar, were also termed as the occasion of revelation.

Although the immediate addressees of this verse are rulers and those in authority who have the means to fight and wage war, [ as stated by Abu Hayyan in Al-Bahr and preferred by ` Alusi in Ruh-ul-Ma` ani ] all Muslims are addressed in this verse indirectly to assist those in authority in this matter. Where there is no leader, ‘amir, king or president, the rule is that the two warring parties should be advised, as far as possible, to cease war. If this is not possible, common people are ordered to stay away from both warring groups: they should neither oppose nor aid any one of them. ] Bayan-ul-Qur’ an ].
There are several forms of mutual fighting between two Muslim parties: [ 1] both parties are subjects of a Muslim government; [ 2] neither of the parties is the subject of a Muslim government; [ 3] one of the parties his the subject of a Muslim government, but not the other. In the first case, it is compulsory for common Muslims to bring about an understanding between them and try to stop the mutual fighting. If they do not cease fighting by negotiations, then it is imperative for the Muslim ruler to take measures against them. If both parties cease fighting by the intervention of the Islamic government, then the laws of retaliation, retribution and blood-wit will apply. If they do not cease, then both parties will be treated like rebels. If one of the parties withdrew and the other persisted in oppression and transgression, then the persistent group will be treated like a rebel group. The obedient group will be designated as ‘Adil” (just). The detailed laws pertaining to rebels may be perused in books of Islamic law. Briefly, the law comprehends the following: Before fighting, their weapons must be seized and confiscated. Then they must be arrested and kept in prison until they repent. Neither in the course of fighting nor after fighting should their children be enslaved. Their wealth should not be treated like the spoils of war. In fact, their wealth will be held in trust until they repent. After repentance their belongings will be returned to them.

if the belligerent party ceases fighting, then do not only stop fighting but also think about eliminating the cause of war and mutual dissatisfaction, so that the heart-burnings may come to an end. All enmity and hostilities will thus cease and an atmosphere of brotherhood may prevail for all times to come. Since these people have fought against the Muslim ruler, it was possible that they would not be treated by him equitably. Therefore, the Qur’an lays stress on setting things right between them equitably and justly, so that the rights of no one are violated [ Adapted from Bayan-ul-Qur’ an with reference to Hidayah ].

[Maarif ul Quran Vol-8 (pg 126 – 127) , Maktabah Dar al Uloom, Translation by Prof. Muhammad Hasan Askari & Prof. Muhammad Shamim]

Spiritual Reminders

Spreading Salam to Increase the Bond of Brotherhood
The prophet (SAW) was the highest example of humility. Being of such a great status, and at the same time, demonstrating how humble he was as a slave of Allah (SWT). One of the ways that he taught us to please Allah (SWT) and remain humble is to convey “salaam”. Now, we know that “salaam” is a greeting of peace among people and not just a welcome of hello, but it is also a prayer for peace for a person, and all of mankind is in need of peace, and “salaam” is also a name of Allah (SWT). When we say “salaam”, it is also a form of zikr of Allah. When we say “Assalaamu Alaikum” we get a reward, but if we increase it and say, “Warahmatullah” it gives us more reward, and if we say “Wabarakatuh” is gives us even more. Whenever people meet, the first of them that says salaam gets closer to Allah (SWT). The hadith says that whenever two people meet and one of them says salaam first, that person gets a higher position in the view of Allah (SWT) because he said it first. Another hadith says that a person in the habit of saying salaam first, Allah (SWT) cleanses his heart from arrogance. The prophet (SAW) had a habit of saying salaam first no matter who he came across, even though the etiquette is that the younger one should say salaam to the older one. If a younger person comes across an older person, it is our responsibility to say salaam first because that other person is older than us. But, the prophet (SAW) would not wait for the youngsters to say salaam first, and he would instead say salaam.

The prophet (SAW) also taught us that when we say salaam, this salaam is not reserved for people that we know, but rather, it is for anyone we come across. One of the signs of the Day of Judgement is that people will only say salaam to people that they know. Other than that, they will not say salaam. It tells us that one of the marks and habits of a Muslim is that we say salaam to any Muslim that we come across. The prophet (SAW) also taught us that salaam is one of the things that increases love amongst people. In a beautiful hadith of sahih Muslim, it is mentioned, “You will not enter Jannah until you are true believers, and you will not be true believers until you love one another.” Is this not amazing? In order to be a believer in the sight of Allah, he says, “You need to have love for other believers in order for your Iman to be complete.” If you do not like other believers, there is a problem in your Iman in the sight of Allah. You cannot be true believers if you do not have brotherhood amongst one another. Then, he asked the sahaba, who, by this time, were wondering on how to make brotherhood, “Should I tell you of something, that when you start doing it, you will love one another?” They said, “Of course. Please tell us.” He said, “Spread salaam.”
In another hadith, it is mentioned, “Spread salaam and feed people. Pray in the middle of the night. You will enter Jannah very easily.” Salaam is a hallmark of Islam, and within our environments, we should be reviving it, especially with our elders and teachers and anyone who is senior to us. It is a mark of disrespect that an elder comes across us and we do not say salaam to them. This is from rudeness and bad character, even though salaam should be said to someone of any age. If a person who is older than us comes by and we do not greet them with salaam, this is a sign of rudeness. In another hadith, the prophet (SAW) says, “Spread salaam. You will be elevated.” People want to be respected and looked at in a higher regard. This is achievable by spreading salaam. This salaam is not just for school; the first thing we do when we enter our homes is say salaam.

The prophet (SAW) told Anas (RA), “When you enter your house, say salaam. It will bring blessings to you and everyone who lives there.” In fact, any house that is entered without the zikr of Allah, Shaytan spends the night there and partakes in the food there. Anyone who has entered into their house with the zikr of Allah, Shaytan and his groups have no access. What do you think Shaytan does when he enters a house? He creates fights, trouble, restlessness and anger, and creates divides in that house. This salaam is a very powerful thing. From now on, we must make it a habit to spread salaam to everyone around us; our teachers, elders, and those youngest of us. It should never happen that two Muslims come across each other and do not say salaam. You are also getting closer to Allah (SWT) by doing this.

[Taken from a lecture titled “Spreading Salaam” by Mufti Aasim Rashid]

YOUR WEEKLY DOSE OF

Sirah

Focusing on Mutual Brotherhood Amongst Muslims
The first task to which the Prophet [SAW] attended on his arrival in Madinah was the construction of a Mosque. The Mosque being thus constructed, the Prophet [pbuh] next turned his attention to cementing the ties of mutual brotherhood amongst the Muslims of Madinah, Al-Ansar(the Helpers) and Al-Muhajirun (the Emigrants). It was indeed unique in the history of the world. A gathering of 90 men, half of whom Emigrants and the others Helpers assembled in the house of Anas bin Malik where the Prophet [SAW] gave the spirit of brotherhood his official blessing. When either of the two persons who had been paired as brothers, passed away, his property was inherited by his brother-in-faith. This practice continued till the following verse was revealed at the time of the battle of Badr, and the regular rule of inheritance was allowed to take its usual course.

[Al-Raheeq Al-Makhtum, page 118, Issam Diab’s English Translation]

Sunnah Acts

Reconciling the Muslims
It was reported that Anas bin Malik (RA) said:

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to me: ‘O my son! If you are capable of (waking up in) the morning and (ending) the evening, while there is nothing of deception in your heart for anything, then do so.’ Then he said to me: ‘O my son! That is from my Sunnah. Whoever revives my Sunnah then he has loved me. And whoever loved me, he shall be with me in Paradise.'”

[Jami` at-Tirmidhi 2678]

Adhkar/Dua

Dua For Our Fellow Muslims
رَبَّنَا ٱغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَٰنِنَا ٱلَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِٱلْإِيمَـٰنِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِى قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا۟ رَبَّنَآ إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
Our Lord! Forgive us and our fellow believers who preceded us in faith, and do not allow bitterness into our hearts towards those who believe. Our Lord! Indeed, You are Ever Gracious, Most Merciful.

[Surah Al-Hashr, Ayah 10]

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